Objective 2: Putting Family Care First

Strengthening families is a first priority. Supporting impoverished families struggling to provide care may involve increasing their income-generation potential, providing cash transfers, or linking families to appropriate treatment or psychosocial support. Making primary education equally accessible for girls and boys, safe, and genuinely free has impact. Household poverty and the cost of education can be significant factors in a parent’s decision to place a child in institutional care, exploitative labor situations, or early marriage. Treatment for a parent’s alcohol or substance abuse and HIV prevention and AIDS treatment, when needed, are fundamentally important interventions, as they preserve the lives of parents and caregivers.1 Educating caregivers about protective care helps to prevent children from being exploited, abused, or neglected and to ensure that children’s nutrition and education needs are met.

To support these outcomes, relevant U.S. Government departments and agencies have committed to taking certain actions, which are listed below:

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  • Outcome 2:1

    The percentage of children living within appropriate, permanent, and protective family care is increased.

    Support and strengthen interventions and national systems for care reform and deinstitutionalization that prevent unnecessary family separation and support permanent and protective family care for children outside of families, including family reintegration, foster care, kinship care, and domestic and international adoption.

    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Translation & dissemination of informal, formal and alternative care guidelines (w/UNICEF). Better Care Network to collect & disseminate best practice. Assist government and NGO sectors to develop emergency foster care and permanency options for children. Assist families to access child care grants.
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG), Displaced Children and Orphan’s Fund (DCOF)
    • Activity: Child protection system strengthening, deinstitutionalization, capacity building of social workers and magistrates, and family strengthening to prevent family-child separation.
    • Country Focus: Armenia, Cambodia, Liberia, Moldova, Rwanda, Sri Lanka.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of children de-institutionalized and placed within family care. Number of children prevented from being placed in institutional care.
    • Time Frame: 2012-2015.
    • Budget: DCOF’s annual Fiscal Year budget in recent years has been approximately $13,000,000.
  • Support identification, documentation, tracing, and reunification programs for children separated from families, particularly those affected by conflict and disaster.

    • Department/Office: Department of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)
    • Activity: Support the International Committee of the Red Cross and the UNHCR in the organizations’ respective efforts to trace and reunify populations of concern with their families.                 
    • Country Focus: N/A
    • Outcome/Impact Measurement/Indicator Method Used/Data Reported: An outcome or impact indicator cannot be provided. 
    • Time Frame: N/A
    • Budget: N/A
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA)
    • Activity: Support efforts to identify, document, trace, and reunify (IDTR) separated and unaccompanied children in humanitarian settings.                 
    • Country Focus: Due to the contingency nature of OFDA programs, OFDA cannot commit to specific countries.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of IDTR programs supported. Number of children assisted.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Due to the contingency nature of OFDA funding, OFDA cannot commit to a specific funding amount.
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA)
    • Activity: Support the roll-out of the Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action.                 
    • Country Focus: Global.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Increased capacity of child protection and other humanitarian actors to implement programs in line with the Minimum Standards.                                    
    • Time Frame: February 2013-February 2014.
    • Budget: FY 2013 $305,336.
  • Outcome 2:2

    The percentage of children living in institutions is reduced.

    Provide family support services and raise awareness on better care alternatives to reduce the flow of children into institutions, paying particular attention to the needs of children and families with disabilities.

    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Establishment of new cadres of child welfare and protection workers to fill HR gaps in both government and NGO sectors. Pre and in-service training of social workers including development of national child welfare and protection curricula. National assessment of child welfare and protection human resource shortages. Documentary on family care and reintegration of institutionalized children.
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.

  • Support deinstitutionalization programs that facilitate placement of children in appropriate, protective, and permanent family care, where possible, and ensure that monitoring and support services are consistently available to families and children.

    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Conduct studies in up to 2 countries to gauge prevalence of institutionalization of children affected by AIDS. Assist orphanages catering to children affected/infected by AIDS in family reunification and placement; & to transition to community based resource model.
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.
    • Department/Office: Department of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)                 
    • Activity: Although not a deinstitutionalization program per se, support UNHCR efforts to conduct Best Interest Determinations for identified unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) among UNHCR populations of concern.
    • Country Focus:                   N/A                 
    • Outcome/Indicator: Percentage of unaccompanied and separated children for whom a Best Interest Determination process has been initiated or completed in 56 refugee situations.                 
    • Time Frame: 2012-2013. UNHCR reports biennially; final report is provided approximately six months after the end of the biennium.
    • Budget: N/A
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG), Displaced Children and Orphan’s Fund (DCOF)
    • Activity: Child protection system strengthening, deinstitutionalization, family-child reunification, capacity building of social workers and magistrates, and household economic strengthening to prevent family-child separation.
    • Country Focus: Armenia, Cambodia, Liberia, Moldova, Rwanda, Sri Lanka.                 
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of children de-institutionalized and placed within family care. Number of children reunified with their families. Number of children prevented from being placed in institutional care. Number of children and families with improved access to family support and family-based care services.
    • Time Frame: 2012-2015.
    • Budget: DCOF’s annual Fiscal Year budget in recent years has been approximately $13,000,000.
  • Outcome 2:3

    The percentage of families providing adequate nutrition, education opportunities, care, and protection for their children is increased.

    Support food security and household economic strengthening “plus” strategies for vulnerable families that can be taken to scale, with a focus on improving caregiving environments and preventing unnecessary family-child separation.

    • Department/Office: DOL, International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB)
    • Activity: DOL grantees implementing child labor elimination projects provide various types of livelihood services to households that include at-risk children.  DOL also collects data on number of individuals receiving specific types of livelihood service (employment, economic strengthening, etc.).
    • Country Focus: DOL has 41 projects in 61 countries around the world that either provide these services directly or build the capacity of governments and other institutions to combat child labor.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of households receiving livelihood services. This is an output indicator used to track service delivery; projects have direct beneficiary monitoring systems to track individuals receiving services, type of service, and report this data semiannually to DOL.
    • Time Frame: Projects typically last 4 years, and no more than 5. Current projects were funded each year from FY 2008 to FY 2012 and will end from FY 2013 to FY 2017. Reporting: Semi-annually.
    • Budget: Current projects listed have been obligated.  DOL is currently planning the obligation of FY 2013 funds.
    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Assist governments to evaluate and expand child sensitive CTs. Facilitate access to CT & other social protection schemes. Partner with civil society to establish savings groups. Assess economic security of HHs and provide or refer to appropriate interventions. Market-linked vocational training and Income Generating Activities (IGA).                 
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.
    • Department/Office: Department of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)
    • Activity: Support UNHCR efforts to reduce malnutrition in children under five.
    • Country Focus: N/A
    • Outcome/Indicator: Prevalence of global acute malnutrition among UNHCR populations of concern in 24 situations where refugees live in camps or settlements.                                   
    • Time Frame: 2012-2013. UNHCR reports biennially; final report is provided approximately six months after the end of the biennium.
    • Budget: N/A
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG), Displaced Children and Orphan’s Fund (DCOF)
    • Activity: Village Savings and Loan intervention combined with child protection training for fragile families at-risk of separation.
    • Country Focus: Burundi, DRC, Rwanda.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of families benefitting from VSLA. Household-level data on household economic status and child wellbeing and protection.  % of families receiving children with increased income and % of children placed with adequate access to food, education, and essential services.
    • Time Frame: 2012-2015.
    • Budget: DCOF’s annual Fiscal Year budget in recent years has been approximately $13,000,000.
    • Department/Office: USDA, McGovern-Dole Program
    • Activity: Support productive safety net programs to protect and strengthen food insecure households’ physical and human capital through provision of regular resource transfers in exchange for time or labor. Build human capital through school feeding programs to encourage children’s attendance in school and help them benefit from the instruction received.  School meals and take-home rations assist children in attending school and offset the opportunity costs to households that rely on their children’s income from work. 
    • Country Focus: Currently active McGovern-Dole Program (list updated on October 1 of each year): Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nepal, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of social assistance beneficiaries participating in productive safety nets as a result of USDA assistance.
    • Time Frame: Reports are provided biannually covering the periods: October 1 – March 31 and April 1 – September 30. The average McGovern-Dole grant is for a three-year period.                 
    • Budget: The average annual budget for the McGovern-Dole Program is $180 million. Grants provided under the McGovern‐Dole Program normally range from $9‐$30 million.

  • Support programs to improve parenting and caregiving skills, reduce harmful behaviors and toxic stress within families, and increase community awareness of good parenting and caregiving practices.

    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Work with civil society, NGOs and CBOs to integrate into existing platforms such as savings groups evidence-based “parenting skills” programs that strengthen child-caregiver relationships.
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.

    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA), Office of Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance (DRG), Displaced Children and Orphan’s Fund (DCOF).
    • Activity: Support vulnerable families by: Developing strategies and skills to care for children; Promoting child participation in decision-making; Strengthening family-level participation in child welfare and protection systems; Developing case management policies and procedures; Building capacity of case managers.                 
    • Country Focus: Thailand, Burundi
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of families with improved skills and knowledge regarding positive parenting, conflict resolution, and family resilience.
    • Time Frame: 2012-2014
    • Budget: DCOF’s annual Fiscal Year budget in recent years has been approximately $13,000,000.


    • Department/Office: USDA, McGovern-Dole Program
    • Activity: Increase engagement of parents and community members to promote awareness of good parenting and caregiving practices.                  
    • Country Focus: Currently active McGovern-Dole Program (list updated on October 1 of each year): Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nepal, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of PTAs, School Management Committees, or other similar governance bodies contributing to their school as a result of USDA assistance.
    • Time Frame: Reports are provided biannually covering the periods: October 1 – March 31 and April 1 – September 30. The average McGovern-Dole grant is for a three-year period.                 
    • Budget: The average annual budget for the McGovern-Dole Program is $180 million. Grants provided under the McGovern‐Dole Program normally range from $9‐$30 million.
  • Promote equitable access to educational opportunities in safe and appropriate learning environments.

    • Department/Office: DOL, International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB)
    • Activity: DOL grantees implementing child labor elimination projects provide various types of education services to children already in child labor or at risk of entering child labor.  DOL also collects data disaggregating type of service received by these children (formal education, non-formal education, and vocational education).
    • Country Focus: DOL has 41 projects in 61 countries around the world that either provide these services directly or build the capacity of governments and other institutions to combat child labor.                 
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of children engaged in or at high risk of entering child labor provided education or vocational training. This is an output indicator used to track service delivery. Projects have direct beneficiary monitoring systems to track individuals receiving services, type of service, and report this data semiannually to DOL.
    • Time Frame: Projects typically last 4 years, and no more than 5. Current projects were funded each year from FY 2008 to FY 2012 and will end from FY 2013 to FY 2017. Reporting: Semi-annually.
    • Budget: Current projects listed have been obligated.  DOL is currently planning the obligation of FY 2013 funds.
    • Department/Office: PEPFAR
    • Activity: Block grants and other innovative financing to support increased enrollment (including for girls at secondary level)
    • Country Focus: The actions will be tailored to fit country context and prioritization but the objectives are currently and will continue to be a part of PEPFAR programming in all PEPFAR countries with OVC portfolios. For PEPFAR priority countries see www.pepfar.gov.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Globally, PEPFAR programs report "the number of eligible adults and children provided with a minimum of one care service." The Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator is currently leading the development of a PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Strategy and Operational Guidance that will likely result in changes to the existing M&E guidance, including the addition of several new indicators that will in large part be outcome indicators derived from the OVC Program Evaluation Toolkit. In addition to globally reported indicators, PEPFAR OVC programs are also guided by the PEPFAR Program Evaluation Toolkit which provides measurement of comprehensive child and caregiver well-being outcomes. The toolkit can be accessed at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/our-work/ovc/ovc-program-evaluation-tool-kit.
    • Time Frame: Ongoing.
    • Budget: Budget for PEPFAR Ongoing Programming for all three of the above objectives is 10% of PEPFAR programming budget at country level (differs by fiscal year). Because PEPFAR programs and projects are integrated and comprehensive and address multiple objectives simultaneously, it is not possible to break the funding down by objective.

    • Department/Office: Department of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)                 
    • Activity: Support UNHCR efforts to help refugee children access primary education.
    • Country Focus: N/A
    • Outcome/Indicator: Percentage of people of concern aged 6-11 enrolled in primary education in 102 refugee situations.
    • Time Frame: 2012-2013. UNHCR reports biennially; final report is provided approximately six months after the end of the biennium.
    • Budget: N/A
    • Department/Office: Department of State, Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (S/GWI), Innovation Award Program
    • Activity: Program is aimed at increasing children’s access to literacy and numeracy training, and enrollment into formal education. 
    • Country Focus: India.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of Chintan child beneficiaries transitioning from informal to formal education.
    • Time Frame: 2012 to 2014.
    • Budget: $500,000 (not all of which goes to children, but some).
    • Department/Office: USAID, Bureau for Europe and Eurasia
    • Activity: In conjunction with the Agency's Coordinator for Disability and Inclusive Development and the SPANS Office, the Bureau will share best practices in inclusive education to all USAID Missions and interested implementing partners. The focus will be on concrete presentations of the international agreements underpinning inclusive education, US domestic experience in this area, and key features of strong programming (to be offered by UNICEF and two USAID Missions). There will also be a discussion of good practices in integrating work related to disabilities into all aspects of USAID Mission programming.
    • Country Focus: Europe and Eurasia.
    • Outcome/Indicator:                 
    • Time Frame: 2013.
    • Budget:
    • Department/Office: USDA, McGovern-Dole Program
    • Activity: Ease the economic burden of children attending school through take-home rations, reduce cultural barriers that prevent children from attending school through improvements in school infrastructure, and increase the skills and knowledge of teachers as a result of USDA assistance.
    • Country Focus: Currently active McGovern-Dole Program (list updated on October 1 of each year): Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nepal, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda.
    • Outcome/Indicator: Number of take-home rations provided to students as a result of USDA assistance. Number of school buildings, classrooms, and latrines rehabilitated or constructed as a result of USDA assistance. Number of teachers, educators, and teaching assistants trained or certified as a result of USDA assistance.
    • Time Frame: Reports are provided biannually covering the periods: October 1 – March 31 and April 1 – September 30. The average McGovern-Dole grant is for a three-year period.
    • Budget: The average annual budget for the McGovern-Dole Program is $180 million. Grants provided under the McGovern‐Dole Program normally range from $9‐$30 million.

Footnotes

  1. Williamson, J. and Greenberg, A. (2010). Families, not orphanages. Better Care Network, New York.

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